Josef Kutlvašr1,2, Jan Pergl1, Adam Baroš3 and Petr Pyšek1,4
1Department of Invasion Ecology, Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zámek 1, CZ-252 43 Průhonice, Czech Republic
2Department of Applied Ecology, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague Kamýcká 129, CZ-165 00, Prague – Suchdol, Czech Republic
3Department of Cultural Landscape and Sites, Silva Tarouca Research Institute for Landscape and Ornamental Gardening, Květnové náměstí 391, CZ-252 43 Průhonice, Czech Republic
4Department of Ecology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Viničná 7, CZ-128 44 Prague, Czech Republic
Ornamental plantations are typical for a broad range of human-made habitats such as gardens, parks or urban spaces. Nowadays,the so-called low-maintenance perennial beds are becoming popular in horticulture and urban planning. Due to a low level of management and a good record of the time of establishment and planting, they provide a suitable study system for analyzing individual species’ survival and how this depends on their traits. As such, monitoring the population processes (survival, reproduction and spread) can provide detailed information on the naturalization and community assembly processes within the scope of one of the most important source of alien plants – horticulture.
We studied perennial flowerbeds in the Czech Republic with a known initial composition at the time of establishment between 2006–2010 and compared this with the state in 2016. The flowerbeds were initially planted in a publicly accessible part of the garden for ornamental purposes and harboured diverse species compositions. We tested the effect of biological traits of species (height, vegetative and generative reproduction, and specific leaf area) on their survival and spread, and analysed the changes over time in species composition, richness and diversity.
We found that the height of plants and generative reproduction had a positive effect on the survival of individual taxa. Taxa taller than 1 m with massive and regular generative reproduction survived best. Aquilegia sp., Aster dumosus, Knautia macedonica and Silene coronaria spread most easily into neighbouring areas. In terms of flowerbed compositions and their 10 years dynamics, highly diverse assemblages were most stable, and the most successful group of taxa were those of Mediterranean origin.
Kutlvašr J., Pergl J., Baroš A. & Pyšek P. (2018) Survival, dynamics of spread and invasive potential of species in perennial plantations. Biol. Invas. 21: 561–573.