Barbara Tokarska-Guzik et al.
Department of Botany and Nature Protection, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Silesia in Katowice, Bankowa 12, 40-007, Katowice, Poland
The new regulations that have come into force in the EU brought about, for the first time in Poland, a risk assessment for 118 species of alien origin, including 60 plant species, which was carried out by the initiative of the General Directorate for Environmental Protection in the department of the Ministry of the Environment. In this evaluation the Harmonia+PL procedure was used, based on protocol Harmonia+, developed in Belgium, adopted to the situation in Poland. The procedure comprises 41 questions that refer to the present status of the invasive species and its impact in specific domains. We distinguished the environmental domain (wild plants and animals, habitats and ecosystems), the plant domain (cultivated plants), the animal domain (domesticated animals), the human domain (humans), other domains (targets not included elsewhere), ecosystem services, and the effect of expected climate change on species invasiveness. Each species was assessed independently by two experts, and the joint version was agreed in consultation with a third expert (the reviewer). Risk scores referring to the current (or potential) situation of the assessed species in Poland were calculated based on the answers obtained. The final grade of the species was calculated based on the number of domains affected by the species, scope of this impact and the degree of certainty of the assessment. Among the 60 plant species analysed, seven are not yet found in Poland, and 12 occur only in cultivation. All the analysed species have a negative impact on the natural environment, 50 species (83.3%) have a negative impact on cultivated plants, 31 species (51.7%) on the animal domain, 46 species (76.7%) on other domains, and 25 species (41.7%) showed negative effects on humans. One of the aspects of the analysis of the 60 alien plant species in Poland is the reference of the obtained results to the degree of risk caused by individual species, and then their allocation to one of four lists of species – white, warning, alarm and black lists (Fig. 1). These lists are designed in order to facilitate management and make appropriate decisions on how to deal with particular species. The analysis identified 10 priority species for which remedial actions will be taken first. Among them there are two species at the initial stage of spread (e.g. Cabomba carliniana), those rapidly increasing the number of localities (e.g. Impatiens capensis), as well as those that are already very numerous (e.g. Echinocystis lobata or Heracleum sosnowskyi). Regardless of the activities aimed at developing the most effective logistics solutions, a large part of the action plan was devoted to the development of legal solutions, control of dispersal corridors, training of administration and public service employees, as well as educational campaigns.
Zygmunt Dajdok, Alina Urbisz, Karolina Mazurska, Wojciech Solarz, Katarzyna Bzdęga, Władysław Danielewicz, Bogdan Jackowiak, Barbara Sudnik-Wójcikowska, Teresa Nowak, Damian Chmura, Maciej Gąbka, Dan Wołkowycki, Czesław Hołdyński, Zbigniew Celka, Magdalena Szymura, Anna Gazda, Wojciech Adamowski, Emilia Brzosko, Julian Chmiel, Izabela Sachajdakiewicz, Agnieszka Kompała-Bąba, Agnieszka Popiela, Dorota Michalska-Hejduk, Zofia Sotek, Adam Zając, Maria Zając, Agnieszka Kolada, Tadeusz Korniak, Anna Krzysztofiak, Elżbieta Melon, Monika Myśliwy, Stanisław Rosadziński, Edyta Sierka, Ewa Szczęśniak, Michał Śliwiński, Aleksandra Halerewicz, Anna Halladin-Dąbrowska, Dominik Kopeć, Anna Otręba, Andrzej Purcel, Blanka Wiatrowska, Beata Woziwoda, Justyna Wylazłowska, Przemysław Bąbelewski, Anna Bomanowska, Ryszard Kamiński, Łukasz Krajewski, Paweł Mirski, Magdalena Podlaska, Zbigniew Sobisz, Marian Szewczyk, Gabriela Woźniak, Ludwik Żołnierz, Wiesław Król, Lech Krzysztofiak, Kamil Najberek, Andrzej Pasierbiński, Agnieszka Smieja, Adrian Zarychta and Ian C. Trueman