Kateřina Štajerová1,2, Petr Kohout1,3,4, Zuzana Kolaříková1, Lukáš Sekerka5, Petr Šmilauer6, Dana Blumenthal7, Ragan M. Callaway8,9, Martin Hejda1, Peter Kotanen10, Diane L. Larson11, Maarja Öpik12, Urs Schaffner13, Radka Sudová1, Stanislav Vosolsobě1,4 and Petr Pyšek1,2
1Institute of Botany, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Průhonice, CZ–252 43, Czech Republic
2Department of Ecology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
3Institute of Microbiology, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic
4Dept of Experimental Plant Biology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
5Department of Entomology, National Museum, Prague, Czech Republic
6Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, České Budějovice, Czech Republic
7Rangeland Resources and System Research Unit, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Ft Collins, USA
8Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA
9Wildlife Biology and the Institute on Ecosystems, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA
10Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto Mississauga, Canada
11Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA
12Department of Botany, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Tartu, Estonia
13CABI, Rue des Grillons 1, 2800 Delémont, Switzerland
Despite intensive ecological research on mycorrhizal symbiosis, its importance in invasion biology has been rather underestimated. At least so far, when the rapid development of molecular techniques allowed us to incorporate the effects of mycorrhizal fungi on plant invasion success in ecological studies for a relatively reasonable amount of money. Here, we focused on one type of mycorrhizal symbiosis, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which are ubiquitous, low host-specific, world-wide distributed and associated with the majority of terrestrial plants. Thus, it is highly probable that an invasive plant species will interact with AMF in its native as well as in the invaded range.
The present study aims to test this assumption by using a biogeographic comparison of three model (semi)grassland Asteraceae species – Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense), oxeye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare agg.), and common tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) – native to Europe and invasive in North America. In both ranges, we established eighteen experimental sites in which the given species was either a native or an invasive dominant: 1) to identify AMF community assembly associated with the given species in both ranges, 2) to compare AMF community assembly of the given species with that of native species of resident communities in the native vs invaded range, and 3) to describe changes in AMF community assembly during the invasion process. The community structure of AMF were identified using MiSeq Illumina amplicon sequencing of SSU rDNA region (primer combination NS31/AML2). The AMF Virtual Taxa (VT) were determined using blast search of Illumina reads against MaarjAM database. All statistical analyses were performed on a subsampled dataset (1000 AMF seq. / sample) using R and Canoco.
In total, 163 AMF VT were identified (i.e. 119 Glomeraceae, 10 Diversisporaceae, 8 Acaulosporaceae, 8 Claroideoglomeraceae, 6 Gigasporaceae, 5 Paraglomeraceae, 4 Archaeosporaceae, 2 Pacisporaceae, 1 Ambisporaceae). Community assemblies of AMF associated with the given species significantly differed between ranges, whereas no important differences were found in the composition of AMF communities in the roots of the given species compared with that of native species of resident communities. In addition, we found higher variation in AMF community assemblies of Cirsium arvense and Tanacetum vulgare across the experimental sites in the invaded range compared to the native one. In general, the host plant effect and richness of AMF communities associated with the given species decreased during the invasion process.